Recently I found the need to write a query which would tell me which table belonged to which File Group or Partition Scheme in a SQL Server 2005 database. I found that a system SP exists called “sp_objectfilegroup” to return the filegroup information for one table. This SP takes a parameter which is the object id of the table that you are interested in. However, using the sys.data_spaces catalog view and tying it back to sys.indexes output, I can find out which table belongs to which filegroup on the database.
select object_name(a.object_id) as ObjectName, IndexName = case when a.name is null then 'Heap' else a.name end,(select name from sys.data_spaces where data_space_id = a.data_space_id) as FileGroupName from sys.indexes a where index_id < 2